Neodymium is mined from clays in the south of China and is a high-performance magnetic metal with excellent coercivity, remanence, and energy product. It is also recyclable which makes production and mining efficient and eco-friendly. This article will describe the manufacturing and mining processes of neodymium magnetics. Learn more about how this metal is mined, shaped and made.
The clays of south China are used to mine the mineral neodymium.
Despite its silvery white hue and the atomic number, neodymium is extremely versatile. It is utilized in computers and cell phones. The Tesla Model 3 motor has the strongest permanent magnet ever created. The element isn’t found in its purest form, and must be refined in order to be used in magnets that are used for general-purpose use. Neodymium is mined in Brazil and China is also utilized in laser surgery and cancer treatment.
The region where much of the mining took place is small and unpopulated, with only a few people living in the area. An elderly woman riding a motorbike up an uphill road carrying a bamboo load passed us. A man in his 60s beckoned us down for a ride to a town in the vicinity. He seemed unaffected by the mining pollution.
This material is used in neodymium Iron-Born (NdFeB) and magnets. While neodymium isn’t a primary role in the creation of these powerful magnets, it is an important element. The rare earths are largely manufactured in China which accounts for around 80 percent of the world’s supply.
Although the mining process has produced an estimated 38 billion Yuan (about $5.35 trillion), only a small amount is used to pay for cleanup. Experts suggest that the environment will be able to recover within 50 to 100 years. In the meantime, the Chinese government will require a foreign exchange reserve to help local governments, which are facing fiscal pressure.
A mineral rich in REEs is used in south of China to produce Neodymium magnetic. This rare metal is difficult to come across in its natural state. It is extracted from clays in the southern region of China. This region is highly efficient in mining neodymium and is profitable for both businesses and the environment.
In 1991, China specified ionic clays as national protective extraction minerals. They must be controlled by the central government at every stage of the supply chain. The RE office is responsible to create Ionic-type RE resources from the middle to the long-term. The government allowed collective ownership companies to mine a limited number of deposits. It also barred private companies from participating in the mining industry.
However, Chinese authorities have recently recognized the widespread illegal mining of the rare earth magnet. This is the reason for 30% of China’s neodymium production that is largely procured overseas. Illegal mining is an issue for China’s rare earth industry. China’s illegal mining is dealt with by the government.
Neodymium magnets are more powerful and have higher coercivity and remanence in addition to a greater energy product.
As compared to other permanent magnets Neodymium magnets possess stronger magnetic properties. Their coercivity, remanence and energy product are greater than other types. The history of advancements in magnets has shown a progression in higher coercivity. They are also less vulnerable to demagnetization. The hysteresis curve (also known as the BH Curve) describes the performance of a magnet materials. The magnet’s strength is determined by the degree of the energy product is.
The magnetism of neodymium magns are what define their character and provide a basis for comparison and selection. When comparing different types of magnets, coercivity and remanence need to be taken into consideration. Maximum energy product is the strength of a magnet’s magnetic field. Neodymium magnets have higher coercivity, but they are also more brittle and must be handled with care.
Neodymium magnets can be found in numerous applications, including electronics. They are utilized in computers as well as audio equipment. For example, the speaker coils of microphones are powered by magnets that move when sound is produced. Dental applications also make use of Neodymium magnets, which includes miniature Neodymium magnets that hold dentures in place.
The intrinsic coercivity of room temperature neodymium magnets is considered the most effective method for stretching their knees. High operating temperature is equivalent to high intrinsic coercivity in motors as well as generators. However there is a trade-off. Higher operating temperature requires a larger magnetic field than lower temperature.
High-performance applications will benefit from the coercivity, remanence and energy that neodymium magnetics can provide. Since neodymium is more plentiful than rare earth magnets, it is increasingly used in magnets. Nd15 Fe77B8 is the basic component of a neodymium-alloy. It is usually made by rapid solidification. This creates a thin ribbon made of amorphous material that is cut into 200 mm particles. These particles are then attached to polyamides, and then injected-molded to create magnets.
Neodymium magnets have higher remanence, coercivity and energy product than other metals. However, a higher-priced magnet, a Neodymium-B magnet has a higher remanence and greater coercivity, as well as a more energy product. These characteristics do not guarantee higher performance. Therefore, the energy product of neodymium magnets can only be evaluated using a high-quality laboratory model.
Neodymium magnets are durable and have a high remanence, high coercivity, and resistance to demagnetization. Neodymium magnets are extremely durable and are suitable for heat applications even at low temperatures. Although they aren’t as heat-resistant as Alnico magnets, they do not lose their remanence or energy product even when exposed to high temperatures.
For the highest energy product and coercivity, neodymium magnets are better than Ferrite magnets. They have an energy product that is approximately BH M. Additionally they are stronger and more durable than the majority of metals. There are a variety of grades of Neodymium magnets. However, they are expensive compared to Ferrite magnets.
they can be reused
Neodymium can be easily degraded or converted to. The mining process can expose workers to particles and radioactive fumes. However, recycling neodymium requires re-processing of the material in magnets that contain only the elements boron, neo, or iron. This process consumes more energy and less polluting than mining. Neodymium is an extremely valuable rare earth metal that is utilized in many electronic products.
Although recycling rare earth magnets is technically possible but it is not feasible for most companies. In 2011, less than one percent of the material was recycled. This lack of scalability is due to financial, political technical, and other difficulties. Several organizations are working on more efficient methods to reduce the need for these precious metals to be mined overseas. These new recycling methods are, if they succeed, likely to reduce the use of rare earths in the production of goods and help to create a sustainable society.
Another option for recycling the neodymium is to use thermal demagnetization. Rare earth materials lose their magnetic properties around the Curie point that is 176° Fahrenheit. The tools for thermal demagnetizing, such as Apex demagnetizers, pass alternating current through the magnet. Shielding sheets for protection can be used to line containers to prevent magnets sticking to ferrous materials in landfills.
Recycling neodymium magnets is an excellent way to reduce the environmental impact of old electric motors. A new type of electric motors was created by the Demeter research group, which makes use of recycled neodymium magnetics. These magnets can be used in high-speed rail, wind turbines, and electric vehicles. These new models will allow electric vehicles to address environmental and economic issues.
While some companies have developed an industrial process for recycling permanent magnets, the process is still in its early stages. The ISR process does not produce acid waste and is organic solvent-free. It is able to recover four REEs (refractory iron oxide) and three rare earths that could be sold in the future. It requires grinding and dissolving the material to the size of a fine powder before it is re-used. High purity secondary byproducts are produced. They are of top quality.
This method is slower than hand-picking neodymium magnets from hard drives. Shredders are faster but it creates a mess. You can also shred your entire hard drive. This is a more reliable option. The neodymium can then be leached by sulfuric acid, and then recovered. Researchers claim that this process can recover 99 percent of the neodymium, while the rest is incompatible with the acid.
There are numerous other sources of neodymium which can be reused. One of these sources is Mountain Pass, CA’s state-of the-art refining facility. Apart from neodymium magnets, there are many other sources like electric motors, alternators and hard drives. The Urban Mining Company, a group of entrepreneurs and a Slovenian magnetics scientist attended the ALMA International Symposium & Expo 2018 in San Francisco and announcing the development of a new method of recovering neodymium from scrap metal.https://www.youtube.com/embed/EdG5E9QJW7U